The origin of the grape variety is still unclear. According to Wine Grapes (Robinson, Harding, Vouillamoz: Wine Grapes, 2012, Allen Lane), the most authentic source. What seems certain: it came from the south to the Carpathian Basin and across the Balkans, in areas south of the Carpathian Basin, the Serbs cultivated it much earlier than the Hungarians. The advent of the storms of history, and especially of the Turks, forced the Serbs to live a more peaceful life north of their homeland as early as the Middle Ages. Many of the kings of Hungary lured them to the line of Buda, Szentendre and Eger with tax exemptions and other privileges. Just as most of the peoples who were forced to leave their homeland at that time brought with them their well-proven ingredients and methods of preparation, it was no different with kadarka. This was a very important step for the whole region, as before the appearance of Kadarka in the Matthias era, only wild black (Kissing grapes) was known among the blue grapes.
Kadarka has therefore been grown in the wine regions of Vojvodina for centuries.
Subotica-Horgosi (Subotica-Horgos) in the wine region, just like in Szeremség (Srem) and Bánát (Banat). According to Galeotto Marzio's records, the red marble ornamental fountain with the cupid statue of King Matthias's palace in Visegrád is also white and red serene wine was flowing. The basis of its viticulture and winemaking was the monastic system spread throughout the region - its notable varieties, probably furmint and kadarka, were grown. According to Elek Kalász (who was a Cistercian priest and teacher from 1930), "... the Cistercian monastery in Bélakút (Pétervárad, Petrovaradin) had the largest wine trade." The famous Szeremség wine, which was harvested in the vineyards they planted on the slopes of Fruška Gora, was sold mainly to wine merchants in Szeged.
Unfortunately, the Turkish rule spanning several decades (almost 16 years in the 18th and 160th centuries) caused immeasurable damage to the viticulture and wine culture, bringing down and destruction to Szerémség, which was already one of the three most famous wine regions in the world.
After the time of the Turkish invasion, the traditions of the Carpathian Basin were supplemented by the grape varieties and winemaking practices of the Balkans, but the ancient traditions were also present.
This process intensified after the Peace Treaty of Karlóca in 1699, and German-Swabian winegrowers and, to a lesser extent, Hungarians returned to the settlers.
Until the First World War, Serbian and Swabian families, as well as Croats and Hungarians, were engaged in viticulture and winemaking, at which time 12 hectares of vineyards were planted in Tarcal (Fruška Gora), two-thirds of which were Kadarka.
Raymund Rapaics: The Hungarian Fruit. In his book (Budapest, 1940) he describes in detail the path of Kadarka. It probably reached Villány, Pécs, Szekszárd, Buda, Szentendre and Gyöngyös from Szerémség.
His eastward journey in the other direction led to Ménes (Romania). In Ménes and the warmer regions of Hungary, it was common to ferment the easily botrytis-cured kadarka together with the healthy grains and thus make sweet wine from it. But it can be tied to the chain siller wines appearance as well.
Petervárad Fortress (Petrovaradinska fortress)
The sandy soil of Szabadka-Horgos is of Pannonian origin, so it is not surprising that there is some overlap with Carpathian basin varieties such as Ezerjó, Kövidinka and Kadarka, although the area is best known for its Graševina (Italian Riesling), Riesling and Župljanka white wines.
Since there are many varieties of the kadarka, we rightly assume that the kadarkas of today's Vojvodina areas are not exactly the same clones as those found within the borders of Hungary. Compared to the Hungarian producers - who are usually the first to point out the sensitivity and difficulty of growing the variety - the Horgos farmers, for example, call it a high yielder and in their opinion, this variety is not sensitive at all. The wine is somewhat thicker and fuller in the Horgos and Szeremsé areas. It produces particularly beautiful and elegant wines on more compact and loess soils. In the Horgos-Szabadka area, the wines of the Tonkovics winery and Csaba Simon are the most memorable. Maurer Oszkár's (his winery is located in the Szabadka-Horgos wine region, Hajdújárás) Kadarka from a plantation over a hundred years old is one of the most beautiful red wines in the Carpathian Basin, but he also grows this variety in Szerémség. Ernő Sagmeister's (his winery is located in the Szerémség wine region, Magyarkanizsa) vineyard selections are also examples of concentration and complexity.